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推农业绿色发展:天敌生物防治害虫 减少农药使

作者:admin  日期:2018-11-08 14:36  人气:
近年来,我国积极推动天敌生物防治害虫工作,从而减少农药使用量。通过螟黄赤眼蜂代替化学药物防治甘蔗螟虫,广西在7年时间里实现总经济效益4.4亿元以上,减少化学农药用量30吨以上。
 
In recent years, China has actively promoted biological control of pests by natural enemies, thereby reducing the amount of pesticides used. By using Trichogramma borer instead of chemical pesticides to control sugarcane borer, the total economic benefit of Guangxi was more than 440 million yuan in seven years, and the dosage of chemical pesticides was reduced by more than 30 tons.
 
 
 
赤眼蜂在自然界中一般以以老熟幼虫或前蛹状态在寄主卵内越冬翌年春经过2-4次转主寄生之后才进入农田在害虫卵内繁衍,形成农田中的赤眼蜂种群。由于农田生态系是间断性的,赤眼蜂不可能在农田昆虫寄主卵中完成它的年生活循环史。在早春农作物田中几乎查不到赤眼蜂寄生。
 
In nature, Trichogramma usually overwinters in the host eggs as mature larvae or pre-pupae. The next spring, after 2-4 times of host parasitization, Trichogramma enters the farmland and multiplies in the pest eggs, forming a population of Trichogramma in the farmland. Because the farmland ecosystem is discontinuous, Trichogramma wasp can not complete its annual life cycle in the host eggs of farmland insects. In early spring crops, almost no Trichogramma parasites were found.
 
 
 
农业,天敌生物,防治病虫害
 
Agriculture, natural enemies, pest and disease control
 
 
 
日前,在广西南宁市举行的国家天敌昆虫科技创新联盟高层论坛上,广西壮族自治区农业厅副厅长郭绪全说,广西糖料蔗常年种植面积1500万亩左右,其产量和面积均占全国60%以上。2011年至2017年,广西累计在约300万亩次甘蔗地实施放蜂治螟,据测定,相比常规防治区,甘蔗亩产增加29%,每亩可增糖78.7公斤。
 
Recently, Guo Xuquan, deputy director of the Agricultural Department of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, said at the high-level forum of the National Alliance for Scientific and Technological Innovation of Natural Enemy Insects held in Nanning, Guangxi, that sugar cane in Guangxi has an annual planting area of about 15 million mu, and its output and area account for more than 60% of the country. From 2011 to 2017, about 3 million mu of sugarcane fields in Guangxi were treated with bee-feeding and borer control. According to the measurement, compared with the conventional control areas, the yield of sugarcane per mu increased by 29%, and the sugar per mu increased by 78.7 kg.
 
 
 
国家天敌昆虫科技创新联盟理事长郑礼说,目前我国农作物害虫防控仍以化学农药为主,绿色防控技术覆盖率不足1/4,化学农药用量居高不下,影响农产品质量安全和农业生态安全。利用天敌生物防治害虫能有效减少农药使用量,目前我国已有20多种天敌昆虫实现了产业化应用,但应用面积尚不足1%。
 
Zheng Li, director of the National Alliance for Scientific and Technological Innovation of Natural Enemy Insects, said that chemical pesticides were still the main control methods for crop pests in China. The coverage rate of green control technology was less than 1/4, and the dosage of chemical pesticides remained high, which affected the quality and safety of agricultural products and agricultural ecology. Biological control of pests by natural enemies can effectively reduce the use of pesticides. At present, more than 20 natural enemies have been industrialized in China, but the application area is still less than 1%.
 
 
 
全国农业技术推广服务中心植保首席专家张跃进表示,将按照我国农业绿色发展要求,加快推动天敌昆虫资源的开发步伐,探索形成产品多样化的生产体系和技术模式。
 
Zhang Yuejin, chief expert of plant protection in the National Agricultural Technology Extension Service Center, said that he would speed up the development of natural enemy insect resources in accordance with the requirements of green agricultural development in China, and explore the production system and technology model of product diversification.

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