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电动飞机有望成为现实 面临三大挑战

作者:admin  日期:2018-12-07 16:04  人气:
7月9日消息,据外媒报道,2008年,由于油价上涨,电动汽车经历了重生。现在已是2018年,电动航空领域也是时候重生了。在过去的几十年里,航空领域和各个技术领域都取得了进展。1986年,伯特·鲁坦(Burt Rutan)在没有燃油补给的情况下,完成了世界上首次不间断环球飞行。
 
July 9, according to foreign media reports, in 2008, due to the rise in oil prices, electric vehicles experienced a rebirth. It's 2018, and it's time for the electric aviation industry to rebirth. In the past decades, progress has been made in aviation and various technical fields. In 1986, Burt Rutan completed the world's first uninterrupted round-the-world flight without fuel supply.
 
 
 
30年后的今天,又一次环球旅行结束了,只是这次是电力驱动的飞机的首次环球航行。这次旅程始于阿布扎比,16个月后最终回到了起点。这架飞机不同于以往的其他飞机,它不排放废气,也不燃烧燃料。相反,它使用了太阳能电池板、电动机和4块41千瓦时的锂电池。
 
Thirty years later, another round-the-world trip is over, but this is the first round-the-world voyage of an electric-powered aircraft. The journey began in Abu Dhabi and finally returned to its starting point 16 months later. Unlike other planes in the past, this one does not emit exhaust gas or burn fuel. Instead, it uses solar panels, motors and four 41 kilowatt-hour lithium batteries.
 
 
 
这个小男孩正通过飞机窗口向外看得入迷
 
The little boy was looking out of the window of the plane fascinated.
 
 
 
2016年,这架名为“太阳动力2号”(Solar Impulse 2)的飞机完成处女航,并从此改变了航空业的格局。从那时起,电动商用飞机的前景就从梦想变成了可能。电动飞机代表着积极的未来,它将削减当前航空燃料的使用,减少排放,并创造更清洁的环境。
 
In 2016, the aircraft, Solar Impulse 2, completed its maiden voyage and changed the landscape of the aviation industry. Since then, the prospects for electric commercial aircraft have changed from dreams to possibilities. Electric aircraft represents a positive future, which will reduce current aviation fuel use, reduce emissions and create a cleaner environment.
 
 
 
欧盟委员会(European Commission)发布的数据显示,飞机排放目前占欧盟温室气体排放总量的3%左右,占全球温室气体排放量的4%左右。这是个相当高的比例,而且增长速度很快。相比之下,从伦敦飞往纽约航班上的人均排放量,大致相当于欧盟国家居民为自家供暖一年的排放量。
 
According to data released by the European Commission, aircraft emissions currently account for about 3% of the total EU greenhouse gas emissions and about 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions. This is a fairly high proportion, and the growth rate is very fast. By contrast, per capita emissions on flights from London to New York are roughly equivalent to the annual emissions of residents of European Union countries heating their homes.
 
 
 
随着电动航空的发展,这些不断上升的排放可能会减少。它将使欧盟雄心勃勃的目标变得更加可行,即到2030年将温室气体排放量减少到1990年水平的40%,到2050年将其控制在1990年排放量的80%。
 
With the development of electric aviation, these rising emissions may be reduced. It will make the EU's ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 40 per cent of 1990 levels by 2030 and controlling them to 80 per cent by 2050.
 
 
 
从乘客的角度来看,电动飞机将带来无数好处。新型飞机将带来更便宜的票价、更低的噪音和更高的爬升速度。有了电动引擎,飞机就能在空气阻力较小的高海拔地区维持高性能,而内燃机在高海拔地区效率较低。因此,飞机引擎的功率必须降低,才能产生等效的速度。
 
From the passenger's point of view, electric aircraft will bring countless benefits. The new aircraft will bring cheaper fares, lower noise and higher climbing speed. With electric engines, aircraft can maintain high performance at high altitudes where air resistance is low, while internal combustion engines are inefficient at high altitudes. Therefore, the power of the aircraft engine must be reduced in order to produce the equivalent speed.
 
 
 
挑战
 
Challenge
 
 
 
尽管围绕着电动飞机的理想和创新有各种各样的宣传,但我们距离实现电动飞机的商业飞行目标仍有很长的路要走。伯特·鲁坦(Burt Rutan)设计的Long-EZ是最近电动飞机的最新例证。2012年,作为速度最快的电动飞机之一,这架飞机的时速达到326公里,但其只搭载了一名乘客。相比之下,波音787客机的飞行速度为每小时941公里,载客量超过242人。
 
Despite all kinds of propaganda around the ideal and innovation of electric aircraft, we still have a long way to go to achieve the commercial flying goal of electric aircraft. Burt Rutan's Long-EZ is the latest example of electric aircraft. In 2012, as one of the fastest electric aircraft, the plane reached 326 kilometers per hour, but it carried only one passenger. By contrast, Boeing 787 flies at 941 kilometers per hour, carrying more than 242 passengers.
 
 
 
以目前电池和发动机技术的发展速度计算,电动航空的实现还有很长的路要走。即使到2030年,混合动力技术有望被用于商业航空。
 
With the development of battery and engine technology, the realization of electric aviation still has a long way to go. Even by 2030, hybrid technology is expected to be used in commercial aviation.
 
 
 
目前正在进行的一个项目被称为美国宇航局(NASA)电动飞机试验台。这个项目着眼于解决目前电动飞机面临的各种技术障碍。这个试验台以提高效率和减轻重量成为主要目标。随着技术的进步,试验台可以适应为越来越大的发动机提供动力。
 
A project currently under way is called the NASA Electric Aircraft Test Bed. The project aims to address the technical barriers currently faced by electric aircraft. The main objective of this test bed is to improve efficiency and reduce weight. With the development of technology, the test-bed can be adapted to provide power for larger and larger engines.
 
 
 
另一个存在的挑战是创造实用的冷却系统。这些系统的热管理需要一个冷却系统,大功率集成电源模块需要冷却系统。为了提高热性能,不仅需要开发新材料,还需要开发用于电子冷却的轻型系统。为了降低飞机的电阻,需要超导性和超冷电子学的帮助。
 
Another challenge is to create practical cooling systems. The thermal management of these systems requires a cooling system, and the high-power integrated power module needs a cooling system. In order to improve thermal performance, it is necessary to develop not only new materials, but also light systems for electronic cooling. Superconductivity and ultracold electronics are needed to reduce the resistance of aircraft.
 
 
 
电池
 
Battery
 
 
 
目前最重要的限制因素不是引擎的重量,也不是飞机的设计,而是电池。目前的电池无法提供电动航空所需的动力-重量比。目前,飞机燃料产生的能量是同等质量电池的43倍。电动航空工业正在押下重注,认为能源储存技术将在未来得到显著改善。
 
At present, the most important limiting factor is not the weight of the engine, nor the design of the aircraft, but the battery. Current batteries cannot provide the power-to-weight ratio needed for electric aviation. At present, aircraft fuel generates 43 times as much energy as batteries of the same mass. The electric aviation industry is making a big bet that energy storage technology will be significantly improved in the future.
 
 
 
这是有可能的,电池能量密度每年上升5%到8%。要使电池在经济上可行的小型航空领域工作,它们需要达到当前密度的五倍。好消息是,飞机的设计越来越好,随着时间的推移,需要的动力也越来越少。
 
It is possible that the energy density of the battery increases by 5% to 8% annually. For batteries to work economically viable in small aviation, they need to be five times the current density. The good news is that aircraft design is getting better and better, and as time goes on, less and less power is needed.
 
 
 
一旦所有这一切都得到解决,另一个问题就出现了,即如何快速有效地更换电池,使飞机从着陆到搭载新乘客重新起飞更快捷?最好的解决方案就是更换电池,但即使是这种解决方案也存在困难。
 
Once all this has been resolved, another problem arises: how to replace batteries quickly and effectively so that the aircraft can take off quickly from landing to carrying new passengers? The best solution is to replace batteries, but even this solution is difficult.
 
 
 
电池的维护成本比燃气涡轮要高,除此之外,充电周期仅为1500次就需要更换电池。另外,当这些电池需要充电的时候,用电量会非常恐怖。
 
Batteries are more expensive to maintain than gas turbines. In addition, batteries need to be replaced only for 1500 charging cycles. In addition, when these batteries need to be recharged, the power consumption will be terrible.
 
 
 
当前竞争
 
Current competition
 
 
 
Zunum Aero是一家由波音公司和捷蓝航空支持的公司,该公司自2013年以来始终在研发10到50个座位的混合动力区域飞机。他们在2017年10月开始开发一款12座飞机,目标是在2020年飞行。
 
Zunum Aero, a company backed by Boeing and JetBlue Airlines, has been developing 10 to 50 seats hybrid regional aircraft since 2013. They started developing a 12-seat aircraft in October 2017 with the goal of flying by 2020.
 
 
 
该设计包括一系列混合管道风扇,这些风扇仅由电池供电,并用于短途旅行。它还配有可提供1MW至4-5MW功率的扩展发电机。燃气涡轮机将被用来驱动两台550千瓦的发电机,以便将飞机的航程扩展到1296公里。2018年2月,Zunum Aero宣布将建造其首架原型机。
 
The design includes a series of hybrid duct fans powered only by batteries and used for short trips. It is also equipped with an extended generator capable of providing 1MW to 4-5MW power. Gas turbines will be used to drive two 550 kilowatt generators to extend the aircraft's range to 1296 kilometers. In February 2018, Zunum Aero announced that it would build its first prototype.

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